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Carlin 10-08-2022 10:23 PM

Found the paper - URL:


By studying genome-wide data from 54 individuals from eighth- to fifth-century Sicily, we gain insights into the composition of Classical Greek armies (ca. fifth c. BCE) and the populace of a Greek colony. [B]The presence of mercenaries in Greek armies fighting in the Mediterranean, as early as 480 BCE and with origins as far away as northern Europe and the Caucasus, is absent from historical texts and thus so far underappreciated in ancient classical scholarship.[/B] Our interdisciplinary study both underlines the value of integrating genetic studies to complement archaeological and historical research and highlights the importance of warfare in facilitating continental-scale human mobility, cultural contact, and cooperation in the Mediterranean of the Classical period.


Trade and colonization caused an unprecedented increase in Mediterranean human mobility in the first millennium BCE. Often seen as a dividing force, warfare is in fact another catalyst of culture contact. We provide insight into the demographic dynamics of ancient warfare by reporting genome-wide data from fifth-century soldiers who fought for the army of the Greek Sicilian colony of Himera, along with representatives of the civilian population, nearby indigenous settlements, and 96 present-day individuals from Italy and Greece. Unlike the rest of the sample, [B]many soldiers had ancestral origins in northern Europe, the Steppe, and the Caucasus[/B]. Integrating genetic, archaeological, isotopic, and historical data, these [B]results illustrate the significant role mercenaries played in ancient Greek armies[/B] and highlight how participation in war contributed to continental-scale human mobility in the Classical world.

tchaiku 11-03-2022 06:13 PM

[QUOTE=Carlin;186963]Chart showing the Y-DNA haplogroups among the Hellenic mercenaries from the recent paper:

The Y-DNA of old Greeks from their Golden Era is radically different from Modern Mainlanders. The deep paternal lines associated with the old Greeks found so far barely reach 25% in Peloponnese and even less in more northern regions.

We need a bigger sample size but still I don't think much will change.

Carlin 11-19-2022 10:02 AM

A Cypriote woman does an ancestry dna test. Results start after 3 min. mark of the video.

Only 2% Greek:


Carlin 12-04-2022 03:18 PM

Meme: "Greeks and Iranians in Real Life"


(Xenophon of Athens describes Persian POWs as "white skinned")

Carlin 01-20-2023 03:24 PM


[QUOTE][B]Near Karystos are two races of Albanians[/B], originally, probably, from Andros. [B]One of these races is quite savage[/B]; they speak Albanian, and never change their clothes. The others are ordinary Albanians. [B]Up to Stoura this race prevails[/B]. Then comes a mixture of Greek islander and Albanian, many from Psara; higher up, from Skiathos, Skopelo, Trikeri, and neighbouring Thessalian islands. One streak intervenes in the centre of Euboea, which, from costume, and language, seems to come from Amphissa.[/QUOTE]

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