Paleo-Balkan & Balto-Slavic - Common Proto Language

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  • Soldier of Macedon
    replied
    Originally posted by Delodephius View Post
    If sycae is the sword sica, then boae most likely means warrior or fighter, from a pre-iotified form of the root *boj - battle, fight.
    Here are some paragraphs from a wiki article about the Boii:
    The Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Greek Βόϊοι) were one of the most prominent ancient Celtic tribes of the later Iron Age, attested at various times in Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), Pannonia (Hungary and its western neighbours), in and around Bohemia, and Transalpine Gaul. In addition the archaeological evidence indicates that in the 2nd century BC Celts expanded from Bohemia through the Kłodzko valley into Silesia, now part of Poland.........

    The "warrior" derivation was adopted by the linguist, Julius Pokorny, who presented it as being from Indo-European *bhei(ə)-, *bhī-, "hit;" however, not finding any Celtic names close to it (except for the Boii), he adduces examples somewhat more widely from originals further back in time: phohiio-s-, a Venetic personal name; Boioi, an Illyrian tribe; Boiōtoi, a Greek tribal name ("the Boeotians") and a few others.[6] Boii would be from the o-grade of *bhei-, which is *bhoi-. Such a connection is possible if the original form of Boii belonged to a tribe of Proto-Indo-European speakers long before the time of the historic Boii. The Celtic tribe of central Europe must in that case be a final daughter population of a linguistically diversifying ancestor tribe...........
    The Boii originated from an area which could be identified as historically Balto-Slavic territory, and if Pokorny's suggestion is to be accepted, then their name is also cognate with the Slavic word 'boi' which also means 'fight'. And I don't agree with the last line in the above quote which suggests that all peoples with a similar name originally belonged to the same tribe.

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  • Soldier of Macedon
    replied
    Thanks for the input Slovak, those Thracian examples were too similar to ignore. There are, of course, other matters to consider, such as dialectal differences, spelling differences, etc, depending on the word or author. That is why syca and sica are quite possibly the same word with a slightly different spelling, just like the possibility with myr and mir.

    Have you given any more thought to one of the earlier posts regarding the Thracian inscription on the gravestone?
    ΛΕΤ (year) ΕΔΝΥ (one) ΕΔΝΕ-ΝΙ-ΔΑΚΑ** (eleven) TP (three)

    **This breakdown seems to make more sense, as the Slavic word for 'eleven' comes from EDIN-NA-DESET, literally, 'one on ten'. Although the 'ten' in Thracian had not developed a satem reflex thus rendering it closer to Greek and Latin, the combination of words (if this is what it means in Thracian) to make 'eleven' resembles Slavic more, as seen below:

    - Ednenidaka (Thracian, one-on-ten)
    - Edinadeset (Slavic, one-on-ten)
    - Endeka (Greek, one-ten)
    - Undecim (Latin, one-ten)


    The second possibility could be a dedication from a parent if we consider the word ΔΑΚΑTP to mean 'daughter', in which case it could be broken down as such:

    ΛΕΤΕ (this year) ΔΝΥ (this day) ΕΔΝΕ (one) ΝΙ (our) ΔΑΚΑΤP** (daughter)

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  • Delodephius
    replied
    personal name Thamyris - 'give peace/greatness', and tribal name Sycaeboae - 'sword fighters'. The first example can be pretty much confirmed, the second two require further research.
    Thamyris would be a cognate of Slavic root *da - give and myr - peace, later mir. Suffix -is evolved in Proto-Slavic into short and later was lost in Post-OCS period.
    If sycae is the sword sica, then boae most likely means warrior or fighter, from a pre-iotified form of the root *boj - battle, fight.

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  • Soldier of Macedon
    replied
    Paleo-Balkan languages, like Balto-Slavic, share a close affinity with Indo-Iranian. In addition to the grammar, there are several cognate words such as sindu, drava, etc. Some more Thracian names which may have possible connections to Balto-Slavic are place name Bisalta - 'by/beside gold', personal name Thamyris - 'give peace/greatness', and tribal name Sycaeboae - 'sword fighters'. The first example can be pretty much confirmed, the second two require further research.

    Another interesting place name is Drabescus, which is the ancient name of modern Drama, located in the Macedonian part of today's Greece. It may be related to other placenames further north, such as Drava in Serbia and Drawa in Poland. A medieval fortress named after the latter was known as Drawsko, which is very close to Dravsko < Dravesko (Drabescus). Another with a similar ending is Bromiscus.


    BROMISCUS (Βρομίσκος), a town of Mygdonia in Macedonia, near the river by which the waters of the lake Bolbe flow into the Strymonic gulf. (Thuc. 4.103.) It was either upon the site of this place or of the neighbouring Arethusa that the fortress of Rentine was built, which is frequently mentioned by the Byzantine historians. (Tafel, Thessalonica, p. 68.) Stephanus calls the town Bormiscus, and relates that Euripides was here torn to death by dogs; but another legend supposes this event to have taken place at Arethusa, where the tomb of the poet was shown. [ARETHIUSA, No. 6.]

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  • Delodephius
    replied
    A comparative study of Sanskrit and Old Church Slavonic case systems:

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  • Soldier of Macedon
    replied
    Even this example is open to some interpretation, such as the full stop being considered an 'O', and the 'II' symbol being considered an 'N', the '>' being considered as 'L' or 'Y'.




    Slovak, we discussed this elsewhere a very long time ago, you made some of the following observations (quoted below) which seemed interesting:
    This inscription is written on piece of stone resembling a tombstone. It was found in a graveyard. So, on it should be a text that is typically written on tombstones, like the name of the deceased, numbers: years, dates, or some form of a message. Note: One thing typical about grave inscriptions in the Balkans, especially the older ones from the first times when the Old Cyrillic was used, is that the message on the tombstone is in the 1st person singular, as if the dead man was talking of his fate.........

    What I noticed is the word ΛΕΤ (let) which in most Slavic languages means 'year' or 'years' and then I noticed the ΕΔΝ (edn) which means 'one'.............The only thing that seem certain to me is ΕΔΝΕΝ-Ι-ΔΑΚΑ which definitely means 'eleven' in Thracian.
    There may be two possibilities here. For the first, if we follow the logic you suggested regarding the numbers, dates, etc that are typical for a gravestone, then we could probably identify a few numbers:

    ΛΕΤ (year) ΕΔΝΥ (one) ΕΔΝΕ-ΝΙ-ΔΑΚΑ** (eleven) TP (three)

    **This breakdown seems to make more sense, as the Slavic word for 'eleven' comes from EDIN-NA-DESET, literally, 'one on ten'. Although the 'ten' in Thracian had not developed a satem reflex thus rendering it closer to Greek and Latin, the combination of words (if this is what it means in Thracian) to make 'eleven' resembles Slavic more, as seen below:

    - Ednenidaka (Thracian, one-on-ten)
    - Edinadeset (Slavic, one-on-ten)
    - Endeka (Greek, one-ten)
    - Undecim (Latin, one-ten)


    The second possibility could be a dedication from a parent if we consider the word ΔΑΚΑTP to mean 'daughter', in which case it could be broken down as such:

    ΛΕΤΕ (this year) ΔΝΥ (this day) ΕΔΝΕ (one) ΝΙ (our) ΔΑΚΑΤP** (daughter)

    **If it developed something like dhughter -> dakater -> deshter.

    The whole sentence could be:

    NY ΑΣΝ ΛΕΤΕ ΔΝY ΕΔΝΕ ΝΙ ΔΑΚΑΤΡΟ ΣΟΕΒΑ, ΡΟΖΕΣ ΑΣΝ, Η ΝΕ ΤΕΣΑ ΙΓΕ ΚΟΑ ΝΒYΑ ΒΑΗΓΝ, or
    NY ΑΣΝ ΛΕΤ ΕΔΝY ΕΔΝΕΝΙΔΑΚΑ ΤΡΟ, ΣΟΕΒΑ ΡΟΖΕΣ ΑΣΝ Η ΝΕ ΤΕΣΑ ΙΓΕ ΚΟΑ ΝΒYΑ ΒΑΗΓΝ, or
    NY ΑΣΝ ΛΕΤ ΕΔΝY ΕΔΝΕΝΙΔΑΚΑΤ, ΡΟΣΟΕΒΑ ΡΟΖΕΣ ΑΣΝ, Η ΝΕ ΤΕΣΑ ΙΓΕ ΚΟΑ ΝΒYΑ ΒΑΗΓΝ.

    I may be way off here and all of the below could be wrong, but would like to see your thoughts on if:

    - the ending of -EBA is related to DEBA, as in the Thracian placenames MURIDEBA, ITADEBA, etc?
    - ΙΓΕ is related to the relative pronoun in Slavic іжє?
    - NBYA is related to PIE nbhos, Slavic nebo, etc?
    - ΡΟΖΕΣ is related to rozh//ruzh for a 'rose' or rod/rozhd for 'birth'?

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  • Soldier of Macedon
    replied
    Here is some information regarding the Thracian ring inscription:
    In the same neighbouhood besides the ring there were found other items belonging to a burial a golden diadem, a small golden spoon, two triangular golden plates, a broken bronze vessel, a round bronze mirror and a broken bronze bracelet. It was obvious that the golden ring belonged to the burial of a noble Thracian. The reading of the letters poses no difficulties but division of the text into words is uncertain. Up to now there appeared more than 20 translations of this text [See D. Detschew, Die thrakischen Sprachreste, Wien, 1957, pp. 567-582], none of them being commonly accepted. Here we list the interpretations of the Buglarians academicians D. Dechev and Vl. Georgiev.

    D. Dechev proposed the following reading:

    Text: Rolisteneas Nerenea tiltean esko Arazea domean Tilezupta mie erazilta
    Translation: I am Rolesteneas, a descendant of Nereneas. Tilezipta, an Arazian woman,
    delivered me to the ground (i.e. buried me).

    Vl. Georgiev also thought that the ring was specially made for a solemn (three-days long) exposure of the deceased before he was buried. He also utilized the Herodotus account that some Thracian tribes had the custom when some noble Thracian dies, to bury with him one of his favourite wives. He proposed the following reading:

    Text: Rolistene, as Nerenea Tiltea nesko arazea do mean tilezyptam, ie eraz elta
    Translation: Rolistene (=You, Rolisten), I, Nerenea Tiltea, die peaceful next to [you] my dear deceased,
    [I] who nourished (brough up) the children.
    Here is one example of how the words may be broken down:

    ROLISTENE ASN, ERENEA TI, LTEA NISKO A RAZ EA DOME ANTI, LEZY, PTAMI IE RAZ I LTA

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  • Soldier of Macedon
    replied
    Here is a short text in Thracian, but I don't have a picture of the inscription so not sure how (if at all) the words have been broken down.



    likes : braterais patrizi isk.
    Undeciphered (Mysian), though the words braterais 'by the brothers' and patrizi 'to the fathers' are present.

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  • Soldier of Macedon
    replied
    Slovak,

    These are the texts we've discussed in the past. Below are the two longest inscriptions that have survived in the Thracian language. The first is the golden ring from around the Plovdiv area, whereas the second is from the Preslav area, so it is probable that there is some dialectal differences.



    Here is some further information on them:




    I have put them all in capital (Latin) letters in the below for easier comparison:

    First:
    ROLISTENEASNERENEATILTEANISKOARAZEADOMEANTILEZYPTAMIIERAZILTA

    Second:
    EBAR. ZESASNINETESAIGEK. A NBLABAIGN NYASNLETEDNYEDNEINDAKATR. S

    There are some parts of both that appear common enough to possibly identify as words, such as ASN. For the purpose of clarification, this Thracian word means 'I, me', and developed as follows:

    - eǵ’hom - Proto Indo-European
    - eź’ham - Proto Balto-Slavic (and Paleo-Balkan)

    The 'm' then changed to an 'n' at some point, so following on:

    - jāzun - Proto Slavic (development of 'j' at the beginning of the word)
    - asn - Thracian (devoiced z -> s, which seems to be common in some Thracian words)

    Eventually, the 'n' was also dropped at the end of the word, so the surviving literary examples would thus be:

    - jaz - Slovenian
    - jas - Macedonian
    - ja - Macedonian and other
    - az - Macedonian and other
    - aš - Lithuanian
    - es - Latvian

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  • Soldier of Macedon
    replied
    Another Thracian tribal name is the Drugeri, without a doubt related to Slavic Drugari, which can mean friends or companions.

    Nobody has brought to attention the similarity of the Thracian and Old Slavic pantheon. In my opinion, Thracian Perkun corresponds to Slavic Perun, Thracian Seitovins to Slavic Sventovit, Thracian Ares to Slavic Jarovit, Thracian Balenos to Slavic Belen, Thracian Kerilos to Slavic &#268;ernobog, Thracian Zemi

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  • Soldier of Macedon
    replied
    The town Edirne (Maced. Odrin) derives its name from the Roman Emperor Hadrian (by way of Hadrianopolis, Engl. Adrianople). It is located at the confluence of three rivers, one of which is the historically significant Marica. The original name of the town was Uskudama and comes from the Thracian words for 'water' (usku) and 'settlement' (dama) - the second word already having been discussed in a previous example on this thread (see 'damastini'). It has been suggested that the first component of the word developed as follows:



    PIE wed - Thracian ud -> udsko -> utsko -> usko - ultimately usku, probably with case ending u instead of o.

    There appears to be a parallel in the Celtic word usce, which means the same. Also interesting, however, is the sk ending of the word, which resembles that of nouns in Slavic languages. Here are some possible Slavic comparisons:

    Udsku-dama (Thracian)
    Vodsku-dom (Slavic)
    Vodskov-dom (Slavic)
    Vodski-dom (Slavic)

    The town of Uskudama became popularised by the name of Odrysia, which was a Greek rendition based on the Thracian tribal name that probably sounded more like Udrusi. The latter, in turn, derived from the Thracian word for an 'otter', which is a water animal, see comparison below:

    Udro (PIE)
    Udra (Thracian)
    Ūdra (Baltic)
    Vidra (Slavic)

    Another Thracian tribal name was Bebrykes, and is also based on a type of animal, a 'beaver', see below comparison:

    Bhebhrus (PIE)
    Bebrus (Thracian)
    Bebrus (Baltic)
    Bebr (Slavic)

    After palatalisation, the k at the end of the word could develop as Bebryk -> Bebrych -> Bebrytsi. A significant observation that can be made from all of the above is that there appears to be a trend among the Thracians in which they use the name of an animal to designate a tribal name. This lends further weight to the possibility regarding the Maduateni. After Slavic became the dominant linguistic branch in the Balkans and absorbed the related Paleo-Balkan languages, some words were replaced while some were retained in slightly altered forms.

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  • Soldier of Macedon
    replied
    Originally posted by Delodephius
    This I copied from a book called "Grammar of Modern Indo-European". I would take the reconstructions with a grain of salt, but it is still quite interesting to see how some linguists reconstructed the IE languages.
    The reconstruction is definetly way off, but for what they knew back then compared to what is known now, I suppose they can be forgiven. It is interesting to take the below into consideration, which is the previous comparison for the word 'gold':
    aurum (Latin)
    aur (Romanian)
    ar (Albanian)
    oro (Italian)
    r (Irish-Celtic)

    zar (Old Iranian)

    salta (Thracian)
    zalto (Proto-Slavic)
    zelts (Latvian)
    zlato (Macedonian)

    gold (German)
    guld (Dannish)
    gull (Norwegian)
    It would seem that the Balto-Slavic-Balkan, Indo-Iranian and Germanic proto languages once formed a common group before Germanic split and became a Centum language. It may also explain why Germanic shares some cognates with Thracian, in addition to the more obvious (and numerous) cognates it shares with Balto-Slavic. It would also support the assertion that Italic and Celtic languages belonged to a common group. Although it is a suggestion based on one example, many more can be found.

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  • Soldier of Macedon
    replied
    The Phrygians were originally called Brygians, and their equivalent for Zeus is recorded as Bagaois, related to 'bog' in Slavic languages and 'bhag' in Indo-Iranian languages. Here is a link to where decipherments have been attempted with regard to the Phrygian language:



    BABA: MEM EFAIS: PROITA FOST TIPA NA EPOS: SKENEM AM: EL AES



    [Translation: Papa (Attis, also called Papas, husband of Cybele, Mater) of the breast, mammary? (L. mamma-ae; It. mammella; Fr. mamelle); alternatively, to the mother (It. mamma)? or the self, same (Fr. mme) he spoke out (L. effor-fari; Etr. EFA, EFAN, EFAS, EFE): therefore, consequently (L. proinde and proin) of the stock, trunk, shaft (L. fossa-ae; It. fusto; Fr. fut; Sanskrit, yasti; stick, club, L. fustis-is, Etr. 8VST) of the model, figure on a wall, type (L. typus-i; It. tipo; Fr. type; Gr. typos, Polish, typ; Etr. TIPE, TIPES) indeed, truly (L. ne [nae]; Etr. NA) of the epic poem (L. epos): Skenem? (re: L. scio, scire, to know, understand; Etr. SCIS) I love, like (L. amo-are; Etr. AM, AMA, AMaPa, AMaPEN, AMAR, AME, AMEM, AMI, AMIE, AMO): the olives? (Gr. elaia) or alternatively, her (L. eius, illius; It. ella; Fr. elle, elles) bronze, metal (L. aes, aeris)] Note: See XE-12, E LAES in the context suggesting, "from Laius."
    Phrygian phonology:

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  • Delodephius
    replied
    This I copied from a book called "Grammar of Modern Indo-European". I would take the reconstructions with a grain of salt, but it is still quite interesting to see how some linguists reconstructed the IE languages. Unfortunately the book does not cite references.

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The so-called Schleicher's fable is a poem composed in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, published by August Schleicher in 1868, originally named - The Sheep and the Horses‖. It is written here to show the evolution of PIE from its first reconstructable stages until the latest IE proto-languages known.

    1. English
    2. Late PIE, 3.000 BC
    3. Proto-Anatolian, 2.500 BC
    4. European PIE, 2.500 BC
    5. Proto-Indo-Iranian, 2.000 BC
    6. Proto-Greek, 2.000 BC
    7. Proto-Tocharian, 1.000 BC
    8. Proto-Celtic, 1.000 BC
    9. Proto-Italic, 1.000 BC
    10. Proto-Germanic, 500 BC
    11. Proto-Slavic, 1 AD
    12. Proto-Baltic, 1 AD
    13. Proto-Armenian, 1 AD


    1. The Sheep and the Horses
    2. Xowis ʔkwōs-qe.
    3. Hwis swes-ki.
    4. Owis ekwōs-qe.
    5. vis vās-ka.
    6. wis kwoi-qe.
    7. wi jkwe-ke.
    8. wis qoi-k(h)e.
    9. wis kwoi-qe.
    10. wiz khwaz-ukh.
    11. vĭs svŭ-če.
    12. vis vai-ke.
    13. Hvih ēwuh-kh.

    1. A sheep that had no wool
    2. Χowis, qesjo wlʔneħ ne ʔest,
    3. Hwis, kuis hlana na est,
    4. Owis, qesio wḹnā ne est,
    5. vis, kahja vṛnā na āst,
    6. wis, qho lānā ne ēst,
    7. wi, kse wlānā ne es,
    8. wis, qsjo wlənā ne est,
    9. wis, qsjo lāna ne est,
    10. wiz, khwes wlnō ne ist,
    11. vĭs, čso vlĭna ne jzĭt,
    12. vis, kso vlno ne at,
    13. Hvih, khhjo glana ne ēs(th),

    1. saw horses,
    2. ʔkwoms spekt,
    3. swus spekt,
    4. ekwoms spekt,
    5. vans spat,
    6. kwos spekt,
    7. jkwes śpkt,
    8. qos skhekt,
    9. kwos spekt,
    10. khwanz spekht,
    11. sva spest,
    12. vus spekt,
    13. ēwoh sphekhe(th),

    1. one pulling a heavy wagon,
    2. ʔinom cṛχum wghom wghontṃ,
    3. ānan wurhn wgan wganzam,
    4. oinom carm woghom wghontṃ,
    5. inam garm vgham vghantam,
    6. non barn wkhon wkhont,
    7. nem karm wkṃ wkantm,
    8. inom barm wokhom wkhontam,
    9. oinom craum wokhom wekhontem,
    10. inan karn wgan wganthun,
    11. nŭ arŭ vzŭ vztẽ,
    12. inam ģarũ vam vantim,
    13. nam erkm wĵ wĵon,

    1. one carrying a big load,
    2. ʔinom-qe mgeħm bhrom,
    3. ānan-ki mkan bran,
    4. oinom-qe megām bhorom,
    5. inam-ka mgham bhram,
    6. non-qe mgān phron,
    7. nem-ke mkām parm,
    8. inom-k(h)e məgam brom,
    9. oinom-qe məĵam phrom,
    10. inan-ukh mkon bran,
    11. nŭ-če ma brŭ,
    12. inam-ke mģam bram,
    13. nam-kh mk br,

    1. and one carrying a man quickly.
    2. ʔinom-qe dhʔghmnṃ ʔoʔku bhrontṃ.
    3. ānan-ki teggnam aku branzam.
    4. oinom-qe dhghmonṃ ōk bhrontṃ.
    5. inam-ka ghmanam āu bhrantam.
    6. non-qe khthnon ōku phront.
    7. nem-ke tkmnam āk prantm.
    8. inom-k(h)e d(okh)oniom ōku brontam.
    9. oinom-qe khmonem ōku pherontem.
    10. inan-ukh gmanan ākhu branthun.
    11. nŭ-če mnŭ asŭ brtẽ.
    12. inam-ke zmnam uoku brantim.
    13. nam-kh zmn uu bron.

    1. The sheep said to the horses:
    2. Xowis nu ʔkwobhjos wewqt:
    3. Hwis nu swaz hwewkt:
    4. Owis nu kwobhos wewqt:
    5. vis nu vabhjas vaukat:
    6. wis nu kwobos weweqet:
    7. Owi n jkwebos wwkt:
    8. wis nu qobos wewqt:
    9. wis nu kwobhos wewqt:
    10. wiz nu khwamaz wewkhth:
    11. vĭs nŭ svomŭ vjučt:
    12. vis nu vamas vjaukt:
    13. Hvih nu ēwoboh gojkhe(th):

    1. My heart pains me,
    2. Kṛd ħghnutoi ʔmo,
    3. Kart knuta(ri) mai,
    4. Kṛd ghnutoi mo,
    5. Ghṛd ghnutai mai,
    6. Kard khnutoi moi,
    7. Krt gntai me,
    8. Krid gnutor mai,
    9. Kord khnutor mei,
    10. Hurt gnuthai mai,
    11. Srĭd znutĕ mĕ,
    12. ird gnutai mai,
    13. Sart gnuthe me,

    1. seeing a man driving horses.
    2. ʔkwoms ħgontṃ wʔrom wdṇtei.
    3. swus kantun wran wtanzi.
    4. ekwoms gontṃ wīrom wdṇtei.
    5. vans aĵantam vīram vdanti.
    6. kwos gont wron wdtei.
    7. jkwes ākantn wrem wtsante.
    8. qos gontom wrom wdanti.
    9. kwos gontom wīrom wdentei.
    10. khwanz kanthun weran wtanthī.
    11. svŭ gtŭ vrŭ vdẽti.
    12. vai gantim vram vdintei.
    13. ēwuh konth gr gtanthi.

    1. The horses said: Listen, sheep,
    2. ʔkwōs tu wewqnt: Kludh, χwi!
    3. swes tu wewknz: Klut, hwi!
    4. Ekwōs tu wewqnt: Kludh, owi!
    5. vās tu vaukant: Srudh vi!
    6. kwoi tu weweqont: Kluth, wi!
    7. Jkwe t wwkant: Klut, ow!
    8. qoi tu wewqnt: Klud, wi!
    9. kwoi tu wewqnt: Kluth, wi!
    10. khwaz wwkhant: Khlud, wi!
    11. sva tu vjčt: Sludĭ, ve!
    12. vus tu vjukant: lud, vi!
    13. Ēwoh thu gojkh: Lud, hvi!

    1. our hearts pain us when we see this:
    2. kṛd ħghnutoi ṇsmi wdṇtbhjos:
    3. kart knuta(ri) anzs wtantaz:
    4. kṛd ghnutoi ṇsmi wdṇtbhos:
    5. ghṛd ghnutai asmi vdantbhjas:
    6. kart gnutoi ahm wdtbios:
    7. krt āknete nsme wtntbe:
    8. krid gnutor ansmi wdantbjos:
    9. kord akhnutor ensmi wdentbhos:
    10. khurt knuthai nsmi wtunthmaz:
    11. srĭd znutĕ ẽsm vdẽtmŭ:
    12. ird gnutai insmi vdintmas:
    13. sart gnuthoi asm gtan(th)bos:

    1. a man, the master, makes the wool of the sheep
    2. ħner, ptis, χowjom-ṛ wḷʔneħṃ
    3. anr, ptis, hwjan-ar hlanan
    4. ner, potis, owjom-ṛ wḹnām
    5. nar, ptis, vjam-ṛ vṛnām
    6. anr, ptsis, wjon-ar lānān
    7. nr, pats, wjāp-r wlānām
    8. ner, phtis, wjom-ri wlənām
    9. ner, ptis, wjom-or lānam
    10. ner, phthiz, wjan-aur wlnōn
    11. ner, pdĭs, vjemĭ-rĭ vlĭn
    12. ner, pats, vjam-ir vlnom
    13. a(n)r, phthis, wj-ar glanam

    1. into a warm garment for himself.
    2. swbhi chermm wstrom qṛnuti.
    3. sfbi wermn wstran kurnti.
    4. sebhi chermm westrom qṛneuti.
    5. svbhi gharmm vstram kṛnuti.
    6. sephi thermn wstron qernuti.
    7. spi srmam wstram krniti.
    8. sbi germm wstrom qrunuti.
    9. sbhi ghwermm wstrom qornuti.
    10. sbi wrman wst(h)ran khwurnuthi.
    11. sĕbi germŭ vstrŭ črĭnjutĭ.
    12. bi garmm vstram kirnjuti.
    13. (k)bi ĵerm gsthr kharnjthi.

    1. And the sheep has no wool.
    2. Xowjom-qe wḷhneħ ne ʔsti.
    3. Hwjan-ki hlana ne szi.
    4. Owjom-qe wḹnā ne esti.
    5. vjam-ka vṛnā na sti.
    6. wjon-qe lānā ne sti.
    7. Owjāp-ke wlānā n sti.
    8. wjom-k(h)e wlanā ne sti.
    9. wjom-qe lāna ne sti.
    10. wjan-ukh wlnō ne sti.
    11. vjemĭ-če vlĭna ne jzĭtĭ.
    12. vjam-ke vlno ne ti.
    13. Hvj-kh glana ne sthi.

    1. Having heard this, the sheep fled into the plain.
    2. Tod kkluwos χowis ħgrom bhugt.
    3. Tat kkluwas hwis gran pugt.
    4. Tod kkluwos owis agrom bhugt.
    5. Tat ssruvas vis ĵram bhugat.
    6. Tot kkluwos wis gron phuget.
    7. T kklewe wi ākre bekt.
    8. Tod kluwos wis grom bugt.
    9. Tud kkluwos wis grom phugt.
    10. That khkhluwaz wiz kran bukth.
    11. To ssluvŭ vĭs grŭ bugĭt.
    12. Ta luvas vis gram bugt.
    13. Da khkhlugah hvih kr buke(th).

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  • Soldier of Macedon
    replied
    Thanks mate, good to hear you're in agreement with respect to the 'maduateni', because the similarities were just too much to ignore. Regarding the declination system, I have corrected many of my misconceptions, and although I still have more to learn, I have come a long way in terms of understanding how it works. To be honest, much of it I owe to your (constructive) criticism during previous discussions.

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