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Old 10-08-2014, 02:03 PM   #1
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Default Early 1930s List of Macedonian Reovlutionaries

For what it's worth...

I don't know what this is a "Supplementary List" to. But it lists scores of Macedonians from the 1930s and earlier and their associations and ties (Mihailoff terrorist, communist, etc.) and relationships to other people. Could be very useful for making connections and researching important or particular figures in Macedonia's history. (Starts on Page 11) (I will only list their name and association, but some have further details about them)

Atanas Albanski, Mikhailovist terrorist

Christo Ampoff, Macedonian Natinoalist Federalist Group (MNFG)

Yordan Anastazoff, United Inner Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (UIMRO)

Petre Angeloff, Ex-vojvode

Arnaudoff, UIMRO

Dr. Phillip Atanazoff, MNFG

Dr. Tzvetko Atanazoff, MPO

Dimitri Atchkoff, Mikhailovist

Petre Atseff, MNFG

Assen Avramov, Mikhailovist

Dimitri Avramoff, Mikhailovist

Gerasim Barkoff, IMRO

Eftine Beldedoff, Macedonian National Committee (MNC)

Georgi Beleff, Ilinden Society

Kiroff Bogatinoff, UIMRO

Dr. Blagoi Botcheff, wanted to kill Ivan Mihailov

Sterio Bozhinoff, MNC

Vladimir Bulioff, Shandanovist (anti-Mikhailovist)

Boris Buneff, Mikhailovist

Stoitchko Butchkoff, Macedonian Youth Organization

Kiril Christoff, Ilinden Society

Thomas Christoff, UIMRO

Vasil Christoff, UIMRO

Dr. Dalkalacheff, MNFG

Tusho Delivanoff, MNFG

Emilius Davidoff, Bulgarian Macedonian Committee

Atanas Dimitroff, MNC

Boris Dimitroff, Union of Young Macdonians

Bojine Dimitroff, MNC

Ljuben Dimitroff, MPO

Stefan Dimitroff, IMRO and MNC

Vasil Dimitroff, Macedonian Parliamentary Group

Blagoi Dinkoff, UYM

Kiril Drangoff, IMRO

Alexander Dzhikceff, Ilinden Society

Simeon Eftimoff, Mikhailovist

Petre Elenkoff

Nikolas Gabroski, MNC

Zhivko Geieff, Mikhailovist

Gogo Georgieff, IMRO

Kozma Georgieff, MNC

Mishel Gerdzhikoff, MNFG

S. Girginoff

Stantcho Giosheff, IMRO

Gantcho Gikoff, IMRO

Lev Glavintcheff, Shandanovist

Angel Gogoff

Johan Goldstein, Bulgarian Macedonian Committee

Konstantin Gotcheff, Mikahilovist

Dimitri Gourine, IMRO

Petre Grebenaroff, Mikhailovist

Ivan Ingilisoff, Mikhailovist

Alexandre Iossiff, MNC

Slave Ivanoff, Serbian Macedonian Federalist

Thomas Karayavoff, Mikhailovist

Petre Kartcheff, MNFG

Simeon Kavrakioff, UIMRO

Angel Kezkaroff, Ilinden Society

Grigor Klimeff, Mikhailovist

Nikolas Kolaroff, Union of Macedonian Students Abroad

Zahari Koleff

Georgi Kondoff, MNC

Simo Kostoff, Shandanoff faction (anti-Mikhailovist)

Iosif Kondof, MNFG

Vladimir Kurteff, Mikhailovist

Dr. Petre Kusheff, IMRO

Gavril Liubitcheff

Krstyo Madzharoff, Mikhailovist

Dr. Phillip Manoloff, IMRO

Asparonh Mankoff, IMRO

Dimitri Markovski, MNC

Petre Markoff, Ilinden Society

Petre Marmeff, Ilinden Society

Dimitri Mikhailoff, UYM

Ivan Mikahiloff, terrorist, aka Ivantcho, Deyan Deyanov, Malkia, Radko, Bresov

Boyan Mirtcheff, UYM

Dimitri Mirtcheff, MNC

Kiris Mirtcheff, UMSA

Vladimir, Mitzeff, MNC

Mikhail Moneff

Georgi Nasteff, Mikhailovist

Damian Naumoff, Ilinden Society

Spas Naydenoff, Mikhailovist

Slave Netcheff, Mikhailovist

Dr. George Nikoloff, Protoguerovist, IMRO

Georgi Nikoloff, IMRO, Macedonian National Bank

Christo Nizamoff, MPO

Zahari Noveff, IMRO

Dimitri Pandoff, IMRO, MNC

Vela Panova, Union of Macedonian Women

Kiril Parlitcheff, Shandanovist (anti-Mikhailovist)

Simeon Parmakoff, Shandanovist

Constantin Pazoff, MNC

Nikolas Philipoff, MPG

Andon Piperevski, IMRO, MNC

Milan Pistolarski, Leader of a Macedonian irregular military formation.

Mrs. Popoff, UIMRO

Atanas Popoff, MPG

Bogoliub Popoff, IMRO

Kosta Popoff, MPO

Lazar Popovski, MNFG

Todor Prosheff, IMRO

Strahil Razvigoroff, Mikhailovist

Rizo Rizoff, UIMRO

Georgi Semerdzhieff, UIMRO

Petre Shandanoff, Leader of anti-Mikhailovists

Pandil Shaneff, MPO

Misho Shkratoff, UIMRO

Pavel Shateff, MNFG

N. Sideroff, Macedonian National Union

Smatrakaleff, UIMRO

Kiril Sotiroff, UYM

Dimitre Sproztranoff, anti-Mikhailovist,

Petre Stamenov

Dr. Konstantin Stanisheff, MPG, MNC

Todor Stankoff, Ilinden Society

Borist Stefanoff, Mikhailovist

Eftim Stefanoff

Stremski, Mikhailovist

Christo Taseff, UYM

Yanko Tassedoff, MNC

Kiril Tchaleff, MPO

Yordan Tchkatroff, MPO, MNC

Naum Terzianoff, MNFG

Petre Terzieff, MNU

Timeff, Mikhailovist

Krstan Todoroff, Shandanovist

Mitso Tomalevski, Shandanovist

Dr. Panayet Tomoff, UIMRO

Vladimir Tomoff, UIMRO

Pantcho Tosheff, Mikhailovist

Petre Traikoff, IMRO
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Old 10-08-2014, 04:59 PM   #2
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Good find vicsinad.
Verata vo Mislite, VMRO vo dushata, Makedonia vo Srceto.

Vnatreshna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija.
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Old 10-08-2014, 05:04 PM   #3
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Thanks VMRO.

I can't access this complete article, but it's Time Magazine from 1933 about some of the people on this list. Here's what I can access:

For six years Sister Catherine Konstantinoff, 26, has been a nurse in Alexander Hospital, Sofia. Renowned for herdevotion, her skill, her quiet bedside manner, not long ago she was promoted to ward matron. Sister Catherine is a good Macedonian. . . .

Fortnight ago Christo Trojanoff and Ivan Petroff, also Macedonians, strolled past the Royal Palace in hunting clothes, equipped with rifles, hunting dogs, pistols and bombs. They were hunting editors, in particular Editor Simeon Eftimoff, leader of the Mikhailoffist faction of Macedonians which has been bitterly opposed by followers of the...,00.html

But I got this from Mein Makedonien blog:

Fortnight ago Christo Trojanoff and Ivan Petroff, also Macedonians, strolled past the Royal Palace in hunting clothes, equipped with rifles, hunting dogs, pistols and bombs. They were hunting editors, in particular Editor Simeon Eftimoff, leader of the Mikhailoffist faction of Macedonians which has been bitterly opposed by followers of the late General Protogeroff for reasons of which even other Bulgarians are none too certain. Across the street stepped Editor Eftimoff and his two bodyguards.

Inside the palace at that instant Little Tsar Boris and Alexander Malinoff, president of the assembly, were trying to pick a successor for Premier Nicolas Mouscha-noff. just resigned. CRACK! CRACK! CRACK! A volley of shots rattled the tall windows. His Majesty and his minister scampered to the tall portieres just in time to see the hunting dogs, yelping furiously, disappear in the distance while the hunters, the editor and his bodyguards blazed blindly away. Out from their sentry hutches dashed the royal guards to open fire on both parties indiscriminately. A policeman and a window watcher in the War Department were shot dead. Editor Eftimoff died of his wounds. Sixty shots were fired and eight people wounded before police reserves broke up the engagement.

Assassin Petroff was taken to jail, Assassin Trojanoff, gravely wounded, went to Alexander Hospital. There last week his troubles seemed to be over. Two policemen guarded the end of the ward. Competent Sister Catherine Konstantinoff moved quietly among the beds. Late at night she paid a last visit to the ward. She bent over Christo Trojanoff, smoothed his pillow, patted his head, then pulled a pistol from under her apron and blew his brains out.

Last edited by vicsinad; 10-08-2014 at 05:14 PM.
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Old 10-08-2014, 05:09 PM   #4
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More on the above:
A young hospital nurse, Katharina Constantinoff, dramatically avenged the death of M. Simeon Eftimon", by killing his murderer, Christo Trajanoff, as he lay wounded in the Sofia Municipal Hospital.
Eftimcff- was editor of the news- paper "Makedonia." and a leading member of the Mihailoffist Political
Society. Arrival body, the Proto
gueroffists, attacked Eftimoff and his friends outside thc Koyal Palace on December ,28. A policeman was shot dead and six people, including Eftimoff. who died later, were
Trajanoff, loader of the attackers, was wounded .and .taken to hospital, where he has been guarded by two policemen because of threatening letters sent to him.
To-night tho' nurse tenderly arranged his bed, gave him a "good- night" curess; then suddenly drew , a revolver' from her apron and fired thrice at Trajanoff's head, killing him instantly;
The nurse was immediately arrested.
She told the police that earlier in the day a Macedonian; had brought her the revolver-with orders to kill Trajanoff under pain-of death. "I am a good .Macedonian, so I . obeyed," she said.: "
From the Barrier Miner, 1933
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Old 10-08-2014, 05:17 PM   #5
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From another source in 1935, a good read:


COMPARED with the political terrorism

engineered since the war from the Macedonian corner of Bulgaria, Chicago gangsterdom is an insignificant thing. This fact emerges clearly from two books published during the last few months. One of these, "Terror in the Balkans," is by the French author, Albert Londres, who lost his life in the Red Sea in 1932, when the ill-fated Georges Philippar burst into flames. It has a very useful ap- pendix by L. Zarine, who was secretary to the Russian Legation in Serbia from 1912 to 1916, bringing the story right down to 1935. The second book is "Heroes and Assassins,' by Stoyan Chris- towe, a special correspondent in Bulgaria of the "Chicago Daily News."

The subject of both books is the so- ciety known as Imro, or, to give it its full title, the Internal Macedonian Revo- lutionary Organisation. This organisa- tion came into existence in the last years of the nineteenth century, its aim being to free Macedonia from Turkish rule. Its members, called komitadjis, carried on a bitter and, in some ways, a heroic gue- rilla war against their oppressors. Fol- lowing first üie Balkan wars «nd then the Great War, however, the lion's share of Macedonia went to Serbia and Greece. The dissatisfied Macedonians in Bul- garia thereupon set up a new and far less pardonable reign of terror, doing all they could by assassinations and train wreckings and burning of villages across the border, to prevent a rapprochment between Serbia and Bulgaria.

In the mountains round Kustendi and Gorma D joumaya, they set up a kingdoom within a kingdom, which M. Londres in 1931 set out to explore. Although he writes with the same display of wit which made his book on the white slave traffic, "The Road to Buenos Ayres," so popular with the English reading public, his is, nevertheless, a serious Indictment of an almost medieval form of tyranny.

At the time he was there Imro very near- I ly dictated the policy of the Bulgarian Government: "If the Bulgarian Prime Minister should get up in the Sobranye (Parliament) tomorrow and announce that he has had enough of it, and that he intends in future to direct public af- fairs without the control of Imro, not all the bodyguards in Macedonia will pre- vent him from being found in the middle of the street riddled with bullets," M.

Londres writes.

Private Justice.

Imro ran Its own milli tary force, levied tts own taxes and dispensed the most summary justice against everybody, in- cluding Government officials, who ven- tured to stand in its way. To make mat- ters far worse, Imro split into two im- placable factions, one aiming at the formation of an autonomous Macedonia and the other favouring the union of Macedonia with Bulgaria.

Todor Alexandrov was the leader of the biggest section, but in 1924 he was assassinated. His death was avenged in 1928 by the murder of General Proto gueroff, the leader of the opposing fac- tion. The factions then degenerated into two mutual extermination societies, every- body of the least prominence in the movement, as well as Bulgarian politi- cians outside the movement, being forced when in Sofia, the capital, to go about with bodyguards-men with revolvers in their pockets and caps pulled down on a level with their eyes. In actual fact, most of the gentlemen to be met with in the cafes in certain quarters of the city were assassins in the noble cause of ."Liberty or Death."

M. Londres says that he went to Bul- garia^ verify the following statement: That since the assassination of General Protogueroff in 1928 no fewer than 193 Bulgarian intellectuals had been killed (by 1931) merely as a result of the strug- gle between the two groups of Imro. But since the assassination of Stambouliski (Bulgaria's statesmanlike Prime Minister of just after the war), the number of Bulgarians killed by their fellow-country- men for political reasons exceeded 20,000. Of these 20,000 Imro (its two groups to- gether) was responsible for 4,200. A Cafe in Sofia.^

Here is a typical conversation M. Londres records with a waiter on the day of his arrival:

"Everybody all right in Sofia since I was here?"

"Perfectly all right, sir."

"Splendid. I remember you served me with supper In this very corner-my guest was Daskaloff. He was Minister of the Interior in those days. What has be- come of him?"

"Oh, he was assassinated, sir."

"Good Godt And Tchaouleff, I have

dined with him here. What has hap- pened to him?"

"Assassinated, sir."

"And Petkoff? We used to drink your fine slivovitza."

"Assassinated, sir."

"I don't mean old Petkoff, who was Prime Minister," I said hastily. "I mean the son, Petko Petkoff."

"Quite so, sir. Both he and his father

were assassinated."

"I don't think I shall enjoy sitting here. In future, please, reserve for me one of those tables at the far end of the room. I prefer to be away from the


"I am very sorry, sir, that is impos- sible. Those tables are all reserved. They have been reserved for years."

One of Imro's taxation levies was 5 per cent on all tobacco harvests, but, liv- ing up to the organisation's own standard of justice, in 1928, when the harvest was a poor one, Ivan Mihailoff. Alexandrov's notorious successor, dropped the tax. The komitadjis were apt to "borrow" on demand any citizen's car for a few days, but would always re- turn it. They knew the assets of every Jew, Armenian and Greek in Sofia, and in 1927 from the Jews alone they took 20,000,000 levas. In their own particular

1 The scene after the assassination of King Alexander of Yugoslavia and

M. Barthou by Peter Kelemen in Marseilles last November. The assassin is being cut down with a sabre, and was afterwards lynched by

the infuriated crowd.

localities they "tapped" every citizen ac- cording to hiß means, not as swindlers, M. Londres would say, but as men of principle, honest men whose lives, de- voted solely to exterminating their rivals, were absolutely beyond reproach. "If you wish to enjoy the good things of life, it is no use joininç the komitadjis. They mostly drink water; many of them are vegetarians; and when they pass a woman in the street they do not heed


"Liberty or Death."

Very respectable folk, these komitadjis! Meeting together periodically, they would discuss whom they should assassinate next, and in the morning, opening the paper "Liberty or Death," you might read some such item as this:--"At its last con- gress Imro gave authority to the central committee to find and punish the as- sassins of Alexandrov. In accordance with this decision, Protogueroff was as- sassinated on the 7th inst. These puni- tive, measures are rendered imperative by the superior claims of the Macedonian cause and the punishment is in keeping therewith."

Or you might, with your afternoon tea, cull the following item in one of the newspapers of Sofia:-"Zafiroff, who is undergoing a term of imprisonment for the assassination of Strezoff, a Proto guerovist, took advantage of exercise at twelve o'clock today to fire a number of revolver shots at the prisoners Milan dinoff and Kostourkoff, who were severe- ly wounded. The two latter were re- sponsible for the death, in February last, of the Mihailovist lawyer, Gourkoff,"

With such men as these liable to slip across the frontier on "missions," with bombs, daggers and revolvers in their pockets, threatening the life of the Jugoslavian King and his Ministers, and also (in order to remind the world that there was still a Macedonian "question'') to wreck the Orient express, is it to be wondered at that Yugoslavian troops.and a high unbroken wall of barbed wire were needed along the frontier?

The Serb view was that without the Bulgarian komitadjis there would be no Macedonian question, and M. Londres suggests that time was working against these irreconcilable agitators-that youth would learn eventually" to prefer the cer- tainty of reality to the uncertainty of their fathers' impracticable ideal. He suggests-as a remote solution of the ex- isting linguistic confusion (for the Mace- donians of South Serbia talk Bulgarian) the possibility of a Federal State of the Southern Slavs, Including Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Macedonia.

Assassination a Business.

Almost with this suggestion, M. Londres finishes his story, which Mr. Zarine ably and solidly continues down to the present day. He tells of many more assassina- tions and counter-assassinations in 1931 and 1932, including the murder of the

president of the Macedonian Emigrants' National Committee. Here is an account of another fray:-"Two Protoguerovists, disguised as sportsmen and armed with guns, attacked M. Simeon Eftimoff, the Mihallovist editor of "Makedoniya," who

was being escorted by his three body-, guards. Many shots were exchanged. The 1 editor and .his guards were all seriously wounded, a policeman who tried to re- store order was killed, and three members of the pubhc were also wounded, two of whom afterwards died. The crowd seized the two Protoguerovists, one of whom tried to escape by throwing a- bomb into the thick of the crowd, but an officer shot him dead, and some plucky individual picked up the bomb and extinguished the fuse. M. Etimoff lingered for only a short while-he died on January 2, 1933. Vengeance soon followed. Pour days later, one of the Protoguerovists re- sponsible for his death, Christo Trajan off, was shot in hospital by a nurse. As a matter of fact, the rival faction had ordered the nurse to kill him.

Martial Law Proclaimed.

And so it went on, with, in addition to shooting, a little variation in the way of kidnapping. In July there had been talk of an armistice between the two factions; but it was too late, for the feud had already begun to alienate Bulgarian sympathy from the revolutionary move- ment, and Yugoslav protests and the in- ternational situation made it necessary for the Bulgarian Government to show that it meant at long last to be master in its own house. Public opinion, long disposed to tolerate Macedonian crime, had grown tired of almost daily assassinations. The Government, flow to act, struck vigorously when it did strike.

On June 23, 1933, martial law was pro- claimed in Sofia, all communications with the outside world were cut, and thousands of soldiers and police engaged in a house-to-house search for arms and undesirables. In May, 1934, the Sobranye was dissolved and in the new Parliament, instead of 274 elected deputies, there were only 100, of whom 75 were nomi- nated by the Crown. Further drastic action was taken against the gunmen, the troublous Petrich region was cleaned up, and the Macedonian komitadjis pro

scribed, hunted and arrested. The days 3

of Imro were numbered, and Michailoff, ' its dreaded chief, became a refugee in ' Turkey, and also his wife. As Mlle.

Karnitcheva the latter, some years before, ; had distinguished herself by blowing out the brains of a Macedonian named Panitza while she was his guest at a per-

formance at the Opera House in Vienna. !

Speaking as a neutral, one must agree that the world today is a better place for Imro's disappearance. It is only since its proscription that efforts to compose Bulgarian and Yugoslav differences have to any extent succeeded. Soon after this clean-up the kings of the two countries met and talked things over amicably to- gether; and a basis was found for co- operation in place of antagonism. Of course the international situation at the time had something to do with this, par- ticularly the rapprochment between Italy (which had hitherto backed Bulgaria) and Prance, the chief friend of Yugo- slavia. By the time King Alexander visited King Boris in Sofia in September, 1934, the foundations of friendship had been laid.

That newly discovered friendship stood a terrible test only a fortnight later, when King Alexander, who for five years had borne the sole responsibility of directing his country's destiny, was assassinated at Marseilles, together with M. Barthou, and by a Macedonian, a former member of Imro. It might have been surmised, in view of antecedents, that Bulgaria was cognisant of the plans for this outrage, but fortunately Bulgarians had cleared themselves of all responsibility by the way they had already suppressed Imro, and it was shown that the assassin was one who had availed himself of the protec- tion accorded on Hungarian soil to organise terrorist acts against Yugoslavia, The latter country's protest to the League of Nations and action in ousting Hun- garian emigrants caused a lot of pother, and Italy, to prove her innocence, also ar- rested several leaders of "Ustacha" (the Yugoslav terrorist organisation for whom the assassin was acting) on her own soU.

Differences Settled.

The good relations between Yugoslavia and Bulgaria are still today unbroken, and Ivan Mihailoff remains in Turkey under sentence of death should he re- turn. It seems, therefore, that the two countries have settled their differences, perhaps, at the expense of Macedonian claims to independence, and with an eye also, perhaps, to extending their claims seawards into Greek Macedonia should

opportunity ever occur-Yugoslavia to- J

wards Salónica and Bulgaria to a sea-f board on the Aegean. $

As a footnote to what has gone ce-1 fore, it may be added that Mr. ZarineiJ gives the history of Vlado Gheorghieff j Chernozemsky, alias Peter Kelemen, Sing I

Alexander's assassin, who was also killed on the spot, and whose identity was afterwards established by finger-prints. He had been chauffeur to Ivan Mihailoff, and had already been responsible for at least two murders. In 1924 he had killed a Communist deputy and in 1930 he was one of two Imro men who rented a room in the house of a police official in Sofia and from the window shot a Protoguero vist leader who was working in his gar- den. For' the second crime he was sen- tenced to death, but the sentence was commuted to one of imprisonment and a year later he was amnestied. He left Bulgaria in 1932 and it was then that he made Budapest his headquarters. An Assassin Described.

In "Heroes and Assassins," the other book referred to here, Stoyan Christowe, the Macedonian-born Chicago journalist, gives what is probably the only available first-hand description of this assassin, who so nearly precipitated a war. "It would," he says, "have been hard to know Chernozemsky welL He was a silent, moody person, always keeping to himself, his nose perpetually buried in a book. He neither drank, smoked nor ate meat. Incredible as it may seem, he once said that he would not eat meat because it was cruel to kill animals. Chernozemsky was of average height, dark, with some- what broad shoulders, but he gave the impression of being a frail person. .... When he showed rare tact and bravery in the execution of revolutionary assign- ments, Alexandrov promoted him to the punitive division of the organisation."

"Heroes and Assassins" brings out clearly the distinction between the first and early period of Imro, when it drew inspiration and support from the Mace- donian population against the Turks, and its second period, starting in 1920, during which it degenerated into the terroristic society above described. As a neutral again, and on the strength of these two books, one may hope that the organisa- tion will not again be revived to perpetu- ate discord. In this case the Balkan countries may not prove such a storm centre in the future as they have in the past.-H.P.
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Old 04-16-2020, 11:08 AM   #6
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Would love to get my hands on those books
I know of two tragic histories in the world- that of Ireland, and that of Macedonia. Both of them have been deprived and tormented.
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