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Carlin 10-11-2021 12:39 PM

Robert de Clari calls Ioannitsa 14 times "Jehans/Johanis le Blakis" and also either "Johanis li roi de Blaquie" or "roi de Blaquie et Bougrie", never just "roi de Bougrie".

He is surrounded by the "haus (haute) hommes de Blakis" = "grand men of Vlachia".

Carlin 02-05-2022 02:24 PM

On the "territory" which broke away from 'Byzantine'/Roman government rule, the state of the Asenids was formed, in approx. 1185/1186 AD. The "Vlachs" from the area between Haemus mountain range (Balkan/Stara Planina) and the Danube, appeared in the foreground on the political scene, from whose ranks were the founders of the empire in Trnovo.

For the Latin sources of that time, a new state of "Bulgarians and Vlachs", or [I]only[/I] "Vlachs" was formed, hence the name Bulgaria et Vlachia or Vlachia (Blaquie) and from there in some Latin authors "land of Vlachs" (terra Blachorum); in the area of "Bulgarian Forest" (silva Bulgariae), "Bulgarian region" (regiones Bulgariae), and "Bulgarian desert" (desertum Bulgariae), and that [B]"at the end of the deserted lands is the city of Sredets, the beginning of Romania"[/B] [B](In fine deserti est civitas Stralis, caput Romanie...)[/B]. From this it is understandable that these lands were inhabited by [I]Blachi[/I] during the XII-XIII centuries.

In one part of the vast land between [I]Haemus mons[/I] and [I]Ripaei montes[/I] or the Carpathians, Gervase of Tilbury mentions at the beginning of the 13th century, more precisely in 1211, the "land of the Vlachs" (terra Blacti), which he placed [B]between "Ravno and Nish" (vicus Ravana et vicus Nifa)[/B]. Vicus Ravana, a place mentioned in other Latin sources as civitas or oppidum Rabinel/Rabnel, is the medieval town of Ravno, near today's Ćuprija on Morava, and vicus Nifa is a corrupted form of Nissa, derived from the ancient name Naissus. "Vlachs" from these regions appear to have migrated ([I]south-to-north[/I] movements) in rather substantial numbers.

Carlin 04-09-2022 08:55 PM

M. Meško, Pecheneg Groups in the Balkans (ca. 1053-1091) according to the Byzantine Sources. In: The Steppe Lands and the World Beyond Them. Studies in Honor of Victor Spinei on his 70th Birthday, edited by Florin Curta and Bogdan-Petru Maleon. Iaşi 2013, p. 179-205


Page 182 of the article above:
- According to Scylitzes' account the names of major Pecheneg leaders were as follows: Soultzou, [B]Selte[/B], Karaman, Kataleim ("probably chiefs of four different Pecheneg tribes").
- [B]Selte settled with his tribe the environs of Lovitzos (present-day Lovech in Bulgaria)[/B] on the Osmos/Osam River. The environs of Lovech had been occupied/settled since 1048/1049.
- [B]Other Pechenegs established their camps in the region close to former Bulgarian capitals at Pliska and Preslav[/B].

Page 183:
- The Pechenegs reached a 30-year peace with the exhausted and dispirited "Byzantines", according to which the Pechenegs were allowed to occupy Paradounavon (or Paristrion) as allies under the loose control of the Byzantine administration in the Constantinople.

Page 185:
- In the author's opinion, "as many as 7 Pecheneg tribes, if not more, may have been left in Walachia and southern Moldavia".

Page 186:
- Scylitzes apparently mentions "[B]800,000 Pechenegs entering Paristrion in 1046/1047[/B]".

Page 190:
- The "Byzantines" seem to have been ready to recognize tacitly the existence of an independent Paristrion, in order to deal with more pressing problems.

Page 192:
- Around/after 1078: "Unexpected arrival of more nomad settlers into Paristrion..."

Page 195:
- In the spring of 1087 Salomon and his small retinue of warriors joined Tzelgu and his Pechenegs in an all-out attack on the "Byzantine" Balkans.

Page 197:
- [B]There were probably other areas of settlement, such as that of Selte in the envions of Lovech and river Osam, probably around Dristra (= Silistra), as well as in northern Dobrudja.[/B]

Page 203:
- [B]The Pechenegs raided deeply into "Byzantine" territories... The Pecheneg flood seemed unstoppable and nomads roamed freely in Thrace and in Macedonia.[/B]

Page 205:
- The author asserts that the unprecedented Pecheneg invasion of "Byzantine" Thrace and Macedonia in 1088-1091 was in fact a migratory movement of the desperate Pechenegs in the Balkans fleeing the Cumans.
- The Pecheneg groups in the Balkans were most likely destroyed one by one by the advancing Cumans, according to the author, with Pechenegs being up getting sold into slavery, while others were recruited by the "Byzantine" army.

This was the area/theme of [B]Paristrion[/B]:

"Paristrion (Greek: Παρίστριον, lit. 'beside the Ister'), or Paradounabon/Paradounabis (αραδούναβον / Παραδούναβις), which is preferred in official documents, was a [B]Byzantine province covering the southern bank of the Lower Danube (Moesia Inferior)[/B] in the 11th and 12th centuries."

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