The history and role of Cyprus in the Greek state

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  • Liberator of Makedonija
    Senior Member
    • Apr 2014
    • 1597

    The history and role of Cyprus in the Greek state

    I have read many threads throughout these forums highlighting that Greeks were essentailly created by the Patriarchate of Constantinople as a way of uniting the Christians of the Balkans against the Ottoman Empire and that at the time the predominat ethnicities of Greece were Albanian and Vlach.

    I have seen no mention to Cyprus though. Cyprus has Greek as an official language with the majority of inhabitants describing themselves as 'Greek Cypriots' and prior to the 1980's, the majority of inhabitants supported 'Enosis' (Unity with Greece). I was wondering what peoples theories on how a Greek identity developed in Cyprus? I have read that the Cypriot "dialect" of Greek is actually unintelligable with standard Greek which is true for many Greek "dialects".
    I know of two tragic histories in the world- that of Ireland, and that of Macedonia. Both of them have been deprived and tormented.
  • Risto the Great
    Senior Member
    • Sep 2008
    • 15659

    #2
    I am not so sure you got the notion that Greeks were created by the Patriarchate of Constantinople from this forum. Can you give examples?
    Risto the Great
    MACEDONIA:ANHEDONIA
    "Holding my breath for the revolution."

    Hey, I wrote a bestseller. Check it out: www.ren-shen.com

    Comment

    • Liberator of Makedonija
      Senior Member
      • Apr 2014
      • 1597

      #3
      Originally posted by Risto the Great View Post
      I am not so sure you got the notion that Greeks were created by the Patriarchate of Constantinople from this forum. Can you give examples?
      I can't remember all the specific threads but defiantly saw many members of the forum claming and referencing text that basically said that the Greek nation was formed by ethnically diverse Christians
      I know of two tragic histories in the world- that of Ireland, and that of Macedonia. Both of them have been deprived and tormented.

      Comment

      • Carlin
        Senior Member
        • Dec 2011
        • 3332

        #4
        Modern Greek identity in Cyprus developed and was created in the same way and manner it developed in mainland Greece or Crete. As I have posted elsewhere on this forum, nations are socially constructed communities imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of those groups. In Benedict Anderson's book, Imagined Communities, the concept is explained in depth. (See http://www.freeinquiry.gr for more info.)

        In terms of your question about the Cypriot "dialect" of Greek - may I share with you the following (also posted elsewhere on this forum, and taken from freeinquiry.gr as well):

        Yet, until now we thought that the population of the islands has never changed since ancient times and that even the dialects are directly related to ancient dialects.

        But historical data can’t be denied that although the islanders boast that they are purebred descendants of the ancient Greeks (though in ancient times the intermarriage was not something unknown), the island populations have undergone significant racial changes even a few centuries ago.


        May I suggest the following threads:

        The Real Ethnic Composition of Modern Greece
        Athens This question has been asked several times, and should be addressed properly once and for all. While I will agree that pockets of Romaic-speakers lived in what were to become the domains of the modern 'Hellenic' state and elsewhere in the Balkans, particularly where it concerns the main trading areas (where as it so


        Concerning the non-Greek origin and history of Asia Minor
        I have edited/removed some sentences and paragraphs. http://www.freeinquiry.gr/pro.php?id=2793&PHPSESSID=1a2502900037c680062f04c9715f5254 The formal education of the current Greek state presents a warped image of Asia Minor, in which the region everything was supposedly Greek and those who were/are "barbarians&quo



        Here are some additional specific literary historical testimonies and sources which certify us of the multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, and multi-lingual character of Cyprus through the centuries.

        0) The Jews lived well in Cyprus during the Roman rule. During this period, Christianity was preached in Cyprus among the Jews at an early date, St Paul being the first, and Barnabas, a native of Cyprus, the second. They attempted to convert the Jews to Christianity under the ideas of Jesus. Under the leadership of Artemion, the Cypriot Jews participated in the great rebellion against the Romans ruled by Trajan in 117 AD. and they are reported by Dio Cassius to have massacred 240,000 Greeks.




        1) In 578 AD, 10000 Armenians moved to Cyprus for colonization purposes, given that the island was almost deserted at this time. ("History of the Greek nation," ed "Publishing Athens", Vol. H, pp. 183-4).

        "Thus", says Evagrius, "land, which had been previously untilled, was everywhere restored to cultivation. Numerous armies also were raised from among them that fought resolutely and courageously against the other nations. At the same time every household was completely furnished with domestics, on account of the easy rate at which slaves were procured". (Quote from P. Charanis)

        2) A History of Cyprus, Volume 1 By George Hill. Page 261: "...certainly there was a coast-guard of Albanians in Cyprus under Venetian rule.." --> In the footnote of the same page, we read the following: "The Albanians formed a race apart, until they disappeared in the sixteenth century".

        3) The Quarterly Review By John Murray.



        Page 429:

        "...in the plains and the cities the present people of Cyprus are a race so mixed of Italian, Tatar, Syrian, and even Negro elements, as to have become a caput mortuum, whence no facts of ethnological value can be extracted." We also read on the same page: "In the Carpasian promontory of the north-east dwells a race fairer and stronger than the mass of the Cyprians, a race supposed to be of Teutonic blood."




        4) More Armenians arrived during the reign of Armenian-descended Emperor Heraclius (610-641). Source: The Armenians of Cyprus book, page 10.

        Link:


        Page 11 of the same book: "Emperor John II Comnenus moved the entire population of the Armenian city of Tell Hamdun to Cyprus. When Isaac Comnenus was self-declared 'Emperor of Cyprus' in 1185 and married the daughter of the Armenian prince Thoros II, he brought with him Armenian nobles and warriors...".

        Futhermore, on page 12 of this book we read: "...about 30000 Armenian refugees found shelter in Cyprus.." and "A new wave of Armenians arrived in 1335 and 1346 to escape the Mamluk attack." Additionally, on the same page 12: "In 1403, 30000 Armenians fled to Cyprus, while in 1421 the entire population of the Sehoun region was transferred here. In 1441 the authorities of Famagusta encouraged Armenians and Syrians from Cilicia and Syria to settle here."

        Still on page 12: "Armenian was one of the eleven official languages of the Kingdom of Cyprus, and one of the five official languages during the Venetian Era."

        Moving to page 13: "...about 40000 Ottoman Armenian craftsmen were recruited .. , and many of the ones who survived settled in Cyprus".

        5) Turkish Cypriots were the majority of the population between 1777 and 1800. In terms of numbers, in 1777 there were only 37000 Greeks and 47000 Turks. In 1800, there were 30524 Greeks and 67000 Turks.

        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Cyprus




        Sources:
        Last edited by Carlin; 08-03-2016, 07:45 AM.

        Comment

        • Carlin
          Senior Member
          • Dec 2011
          • 3332

          #5
          Were Cypriots a distinct ethnic group? Scholars have noted Skylitzes' reference to the Cypriots as the ethnos ton Kyprion.




          Comment

          • Amphipolis
            Banned
            • Aug 2014
            • 1328

            #6
            Originally posted by Carlin View Post
            Well, I don't know the author or the century (19th or 20th) but some answer is provided in the non-highlighted part.

            Comment

            • Carlin
              Senior Member
              • Dec 2011
              • 3332

              #7
              Originally posted by Amphipolis View Post
              Well, I don't know the author or the century (19th or 20th) but some answer is provided in the non-highlighted part.
              It appears to have been written in 1878. The date/year is found on one of the first few pages. Actual Link:


              Similar findings can be found here (also from 1878), namely on pages 84 and 85:


              One more source:
              The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture, By David Brion Davis. PAGE 42:
              Winner of several national awards including the 1967 Pulitzer Prize, this classic study by David Brion Davis has given new direction to the historical and sociological research of society's attitude towards slavery. Davis depicts the various ways different societies have responded to the intrinsic contradictions of slavery from antiquity to the early 1770's in order to establish the uniqueness of the abolitionists' response. While slavery has always caused considerable social and psychological tension, Western culture has associated it with certain religious and philosophical doctrines that gave it the highest sanction. The contradiction of slavery grew more profound when it became closely linked with American colonization, which had as its basic foundation the desire and opportunity to create a more perfect society. Davis provides a comparative analysis of slave systems in the Old World, a discussion of the early attitudes towards American slavery, and a detailed exploration of the early protests against Negro bondage, as well as the religious, literary, and philosophical developments that contributed to both sides in the controversies of the late eighteenth century. This exemplary introduction to the history of slavery in Western culture presents the traditions in thought and value that gave rise to the attitudes of both abolitionists and defenders of slavery in the late eighteenth century as well as the nineteenth century.


              "By 1300, indeed, there were Negro slaves on Cyprus, which had become virtually a prototype for the West Indian colonies."

              Comment

              • Carlin
                Senior Member
                • Dec 2011
                • 3332

                #8
                Link to the Book:
                Wrested from the rule of the Venetians, the island of Cyprus took on cultural shadings of enormous complexity as a new province of the Ottoman empire, involving the compulsory migration of hundreds of Muslim Turks to the island from the nearby Karamna province, the conversion of large numbers of native Greek Orthodox Christians to Islam, an abortive plan to settle Jews there, and the circumstances of islanders who had formerly been held by the venetians. Delving into contemporary archival records of the lte sixteenth and early seventeenth conturies, particularly judicial refisters, Professor Jennings uncovers the island society as seen through local law courts, public works, and charitable institutions.


                --> PAGE 204, Christians and Muslims in Ottoman Cyprus and the Mediterranean World, 1571-1640
                By Ronald Jennings


                Comment

                • Carlin
                  Senior Member
                  • Dec 2011
                  • 3332

                  #9
                  The Parliamentary Debates - Google Books

                  The Parliamentary Debates (Authorized Edition), Volume 248
                  By Great Britain. Parliament

                  Links:






                  Quote:

                  THE EARL OF SHAFTESBURY

                  Now, the Question is of importance, not only as touching Slavery in general, but as to the alleged fact that it is existing in Cyprus under British rule. I know perfectly well that no Slave Trade openly exists, and that no such thing as a slave market is to be found in any part of the Turkish Empire. That system has long been abolished. But the sale and purchase of slaves are still carried on extensively by private agents and in private houses; and, indeed, constituted as Turkish society is, Slavery is as necessary and indispensable to the Empire—especially among the wealthier classes—as is the Sultan himself. Now, as Cyprus was for centuries under Turkish rule, the probability is that a similar system prevails, and that it is fed by large importations of slaves from East Africa and the Red Sea—for which latter traffic Turkey is specially responsible, as it is mainly conducted at Jeddah, a port in the Red Sea belonging to the Sultan of Turkey. From all quarters there are imported, as I am informed, some 70,000 slaves every year. None are imported for prædial or agricultural purposes. The women are imported as 1398 servants for the harems, and the men for other duties, for which they are previously fitted by the most cruel and disgusting mutilations. There is also a large and equally disgusting traffic in white slaves in the very centre of Turkey itself. Circassian slavery was put down by the Russians; but the Circassians who immigrated into Turkey have maintained their old habits, and sell their sons and daughters to the highest bidders among the sensualists of Turkey. Now, this domestic Slavery may prevail in Cyprus. If Cyprus be still under Turkish law, it is highly probable—certainly possible. I trust, therefore, to learn from Her Majesty's Government whether, as Cyprus has now passed under British rule, they will not, following the precedent of the law enacted in India in 1843, decree the total and immediate abolition of Slavery, whether external or domestic.

                  Comment

                  • Carlin
                    Senior Member
                    • Dec 2011
                    • 3332

                    #10
                    Eclipse of a language(s) can and does happen (faster than we think), and depend on social and other conditions. The principles and processes are completely deterministic.

                    So, what does Haiti and Haitian creole have in common with Cyprus? Not much, although there might be some similarities as the sugar economy also existed as did slavery (importation of large numbers of slaves).

                    Merely using this as an example to illustrate how TODAY a population of 7 million people, of African origins, developed their own French-based language - and in the process the African languages and dialects they spoke were completely eclipsed. As per the author's conjecture, the Haitian creole was formed between 1765 and 1815.

                    Comment

                    • Liberator of Makedonija
                      Senior Member
                      • Apr 2014
                      • 1597

                      #11
                      Originally posted by Carlin View Post
                      Eclipse of a language(s) can and does happen (faster than we think), and depend on social and other conditions. The principles and processes are completely deterministic.

                      So, what does Haiti and Haitian creole have in common with Cyprus? Not much, although there might be some similarities as the sugar economy also existed as did slavery (importation of large numbers of slaves).

                      Merely using this as an example to illustrate how TODAY a population of 7 million people, of African origins, developed their own French-based language - and in the process the African languages and dialects they spoke were completely eclipsed. As per the author's conjecture, the Haitian creole was formed between 1765 and 1815.


                      Carlin, are you possibly suggesting that Cypriot is also a creole that may of derived from Koine?
                      I know of two tragic histories in the world- that of Ireland, and that of Macedonia. Both of them have been deprived and tormented.

                      Comment

                      • Carlin
                        Senior Member
                        • Dec 2011
                        • 3332

                        #12
                        Originally posted by Liberator of Makedonija View Post
                        Carlin, are you possibly suggesting that Cypriot is also a creole that may of derived from Koine?
                        Possible - although my point is more about the fact that languages can be eclipsed and groups of people can learn or develop a new language.

                        The fact that Haitians today speak a French-based language tells us nothing about the formation of 'French' language itself, nor the ethnic origins of Haitians themselves.

                        (By the way, there is an Israeli author who argues that Romanian developed as a creole language.)

                        Comment

                        • Carlin
                          Senior Member
                          • Dec 2011
                          • 3332

                          #13
                          Cyprus - Our DNA looks East, not West

                          URL:


                          - The findings show that Cyprus is genetically much more heterogeneous than other countries; only 10 per cent of individuals possess tissue types that one comes across just once (known as unique phenotypes).

                          - And Cypriots are genetically closer to the Near East rather than to the West: the research discovered that the most common haplotype (codenamed A1B8DR3) in Europe is ranked 27th among the haplotypes found among the island’s population.

                          - To varying degrees, the genetic makeup of Greek Cypriots has commonalities with Armenians, Greeks, Iranians, Turks and Palestinians, to name but a few.

                          - Throughout the centuries, the Mediterranean island has been conquered and settled by a succession of peoples, including Greeks, Romans, Jews, Assyro-Babylonians and Arabs and Franks.

                          - Citing what Kosteas called an intriguing find, Turkish Cypriots have a great deal in common with people in Thessaloniki, many of whom are descendants of refugees from Asia Minor.

                          - That study found that Greek markers accounted for around 23 per cent of Cypriot DNA. Apart from ‘Greek DNA’ markers, Cypriots showed signs of Iranian, Italian – a significant 20 per cent – Sicilian, Armenian, Syrian, Georgian, Saudi and Palestinian markers.

                          Comment

                          • Liberator of Makedonija
                            Senior Member
                            • Apr 2014
                            • 1597

                            #14
                            Makes sense considering how many different cultures have passed through the island.
                            I know of two tragic histories in the world- that of Ireland, and that of Macedonia. Both of them have been deprived and tormented.

                            Comment

                            • Soldier of Macedon
                              Senior Member
                              • Sep 2008
                              • 13675

                              #15
                              Originally posted by Carlin View Post
                              Citing what Kosteas called an intriguing find, Turkish Cypriots have a great deal in common with people in Thessaloniki, many of whom are descendants of refugees from Asia Minor.
                              No surprise there.
                              In the name of the blood and the sun, the dagger and the gun, Christ protect this soldier, a lion and a Macedonian.

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