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Old 05-25-2020, 03:48 PM   #461
Carlin15
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_c...ture=emb_title

Albanian historians - many Albanians are of Bosniak origin (the video contains subtitles in Serbo-Croatian / Croato-Serbian only)

A rich collection of Albanian authors on the settlement and migration of refugee muhadjirs of predominantly Muslim population of various origins (Bosniak, Turkish, Albanian, Circassian, etc.) from Hungary, Bosnia, southern Serbia and Montenegro and their settlement in Kosovo, Albania, Macedonia and territories that are were still under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.

Phase one or immediate effect of these population transfers/resettlements was that many regions were Islamicized. As a result of the resettlements the Muslim population in Kosovo reached 90%; ethnic Muslim Circassians were settled in Kosovo Polje district as one interesting example.

Phase two of this process was subsequent Albanization, in language and culture.



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Old 07-06-2020, 12:00 AM   #462
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Albanians have been know to use the term 'shqa' in a pejorative manner against people in the Balkans who speak 'Slavic' languages, particularly their neighbours. They may have borrowed it from Aromanian (Vlach) 'shcljau' or Romanian 'șchiau', ultimately from Latin 'sclavus'. Albanians in Greece use a similar word, 'shkljira', to refer to Greeks. It's been suggested that this term developed a general meaning of 'foreigner', but I am not aware of Albanians using it to refer to Roma, Vlachs and Turks, who also lived near or among them. Albanians apparently started moving into Attica and Morea from the 13th and 14th centuries. I haven't looked into this much further, just wanted to explore the possibility if, when they arrived, some of their new neighbours were initially speaking 'Slavic' languages, hence the reason why they continued to use the term.
It is possible this happened in Epirus. Apparently, at some point in the middle ages, there were still 'Slavic' speakers there.
It happened much further south than Epirus. The sources from the Arvanites wiki page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arvanites
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Pipa, Arshi (1989). The politics of language in socialist Albania. East European Monographs. p. 178. "North Albanian call Slavs shq (sg. shq <shkj <shkl, from sclavus), whereas to Greco-Albanians shklerisht means ‘in the Greek language.’ Hamp observes that "obviously the meaning is traditionally ‘the neighbouring foreigner,’ as with Welsh, Vlah, etc.""

Tsitsipis. Language change and language death. 1981. pp. 100-101. "The term /evjeni̇́stika/ meaning "polite", used by the young speaker to refer to Greek, is offered as synonymous to /shkljiri̇́shtika/ one of the various morphological shapes of the Arvanitika word /shkljeri̇́sht/ which refers to "the Greek language". Thus, Greek is equated with the more refined, soft, and polite talk. The concept of politeness is occasionally extended from the language to its speakers who are the representatives of the urban culture. In conversations in Kiriaki, I heard the word /shklji̇́ra/ (fem.) referring to a city women who exhibits polite and fancy behavior according to the local view. As I stated in the introduction to this dissertation, most of the occurrences of the term /shkljeri̇́sht/ are not socially marked, and simply refer to the Greek language. But a few are so marked and these are the ones that reflect the speakers’ attitudes. The term /shkljeri̇́sht/ is ambiguous. This ambiguity offers a valuable clue to the gradual shift in attitudes. It points to the more prestigious Greek language and culture, and also has a derogatory sense. In my data only the first meaning of the socially marked senses of the word occurs."; pp. 101-102. "The second meaning is offered by Kazazis in his description of the Arvanitika community of Sofik, in the Peloponnese (1976:48): . . . two older people from Sofiko told me independently that, to the not-so-remote past, it was those who spoke Greek with their fellow-Arvanites who were ridiculed. Even today, if an older inhabitant of Sofiko were to speak predominantly in Greek with his fellow villagers of the same age, he would be called i shkljerishtar, literally "Hellenized" but used here as a derogatory term denoting affectation. One of those two informants, a woman, said that, until about 1950, it was a shame for a girl in Sofiko to speak Greek with her peers, for that was considered as "putting on airs." In Spata, /shkljeri̇́sht/ is used only to refer to "the Greek language" although speakers are aware of the other meanings of the word."
As I mentioned in the earlier post above, Albanians weren't known to refer to Roma, Vlachs or Turks in a similar way, so I find it hard to accept that the term was used in a generic manner for "neighbouring foreigner" as suggested by Hamp, at least not originally. The word 'shqa' was/is used by Albanians in reference to people who spoke/speak Slavic languages, often as a derogatory slur. The word 'shklji̇́ra' is clearly related to the former (perhaps even more archaic as it still retains the 'l'). Albanians had already been in contact with people who spoke Greek prior to their migration southwards, so why would they suddenly use that word to refer to them when they arrived in the Peloponnese and elsewhere? Given the existence of Slavic-speaking peoples in Morea (and the amount of Slavic place-names) at the time of the Albanian migration, there is another possibility that could be entertained, namely, that Albanians encountered such people when they arrived and the term remained (and eventually expanded) despite the eventual language shift from Slavic to Greek by the earlier inhabitants.
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albanian, albanian myths, albanian origins, arab, arnabud, arnaud, arnaut, arnavud, celebi, evliya, kurvelesh, ottoman, quraysh, turkish


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