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Default The Macedonian identity: A Historical Timeline

Below is a series of citations with information concerning the Macedonian identity, presented in the format of a historical timeline. The sources refer to the people of Macedonia proper, greater Macedonian regions and/or the Macedonia Theme - and demonstrate the continuity of the Macedonian identity.

50's:
Quote:
The New Testament Bible speaks of Macedonians in the national sense, as the people of Macedonia, below is an example from Corinthians, II, Chapter 9.

For I know your forward mind: for which I boast of you to the Macedonians, that Achaia also is ready from the year past. And your emulation hath provoked very many. Now I have sent the brethren, that the thing which we boast of concerning you be not made void in this behalf, that, as I have said, you may be ready: Lest, when the Macedonians shall come with me and find you unprepared, we, not to say ye, should be ashamed in this matter.

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...ible+testament
160's:
Quote:
Polyaenus was a Macedonian rhetorician and pleader who lived in Rome and was the author of a work entitled Strategica (or Strategemata), which he dedicated to the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus on the outbreak of the Parthian War.

I, who am by birth a Macedonian, and have therefore as it were a national right to victory over the Persians, have determined not to be entirely useless to you at the present crisis: and were my constitution robust and hale as it has been, you should not want in me convincing proofs of a Macedonian spirit.

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...ight=polyaenus
200:
Quote:
Marcus Justin - Justinus was a Latin historian who most likely wrote during the 2nd century AD, although this date is uncertain, as later periods have been suggested, so for the sake of simplicity on this thread it has been dated at 200 AD. Little information beyond this work exists on the man, but his texts provide a valuable source of information where it concerns the ancient Macedonians and Phillip II in particular.

By which means it came to pass, that during the absence of exertion on the part of the Greeks, the name of the Macedonians, previously mean and obscure, rose into notice; and Philip, who had been kept three years as a hostage at Thebes, and had been imbued with the virtues of Epaminondas and Pelopidas, imposed the power of Macedonia, like a yoke of bondage, upon the necks of Greece and Asia.

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...stinus+phillip
380's:
Quote:
John Chrysostom was the Archbishop of Constantinople and is known for his preaching and literary homilies. When analysing the biblical chapter Thessalonians 8–10, which refers to Macedonia, he makes the following comment:

For this nation of the Macedonians, before the coming of Christ, was renowned, and celebrated everywhere more than the Romans. And the Romans were admired on this account, that they took them captive. For the actions of the Macedonian king exceeded all report, who, setting out from a little city indeed, yet subdued the world. Wherefore also the Prophet saw him, a winged leopard, showing his swiftness, his vehemence, his fiery nature, his suddenly in a manner flying over the whole world with the trophies of his victory. And they say, that hearing from a certain philosopher, that there were infinite worlds, he groaned bitterly, that when they were numberless, he had not conquered even one. So high-minded was he, and high-souled, and celebrated everywhere. And with the fame of the king the glory of the nation also kept pace. For he was called “Alexander, the Macedonian.” So that what took place there was also naturally much talked of. For nothing can be concealed that relates to the illustrious. The Macedonians then were not inferior to the Romans.

http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf....v.ii-Page_328
580's:
Quote:
The city of Salonika had as its patron saint Demetrius. During the 6th century while Salonika came under the attack of Avar-led forces which included Slavic-speaking warriors among them, saint Demetrius was often venerated as a saviour of the city. The below is from the literary works named 'Miracles of St. Demetrius of Salonika'.

For if one was to imagine them in a heap, not only the Macedonians gathered in Salonika.....Certainly he who inspired the Macedonians with courage......

http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/Co...Documents.html
750s:
Quote:
The below is from the Chronographia of Theophanes the Confessor. There had been 200 years passed since Macedonia came under the rule of Slavic-speaking warriors, and was by this time organised in a number of enclaves known as 'Sclavinias'. Although it remained outside the reach of direct Roman rule, the Macedonia Theme in the territory towards the west of Macedonia proper was yet to be established. However, of significance is the fact that shortly after this turmoil and devastation initiated by Constantine, it was created.

In this year Constantine captured the Macedonian Sklavinias and subjected the rest of them.

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...ations+sources
900's:
Quote:
John Cametinae wrote about the occasion of the attacks by Muslim forces against the Macedonian city of Salonika, located within the East Roman Empire. It was captured and pillaged in 904 by a Muslim force led by Leo of Tripoli. Along with his father and brothers, John Cametinae was made a prisoner. While in captivity, he wrote a letter to Gregory of Cappadocia. The letter concluded in September of the following year. The letter is entitled 'On the Capture of Salonika'.

I introduce you to the same, the great and the first city of the Macedonians.......The citizens, in fact, were anything but remiss in their use of archery, and used it to great and conspicuous effect by stationing all the Sklavenes gathered from the neighbouring regions at those points from which it was easiest to shoot accurately and where there was nothing to deflect the momentum of their missiles.

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...enes#post19171
900's:
Quote:
Constantine Porphyrogenitus was an emperor of East Rome during the 10th century and descended from the Macedonian Dynasty. Below is an excerpt from his work which is known today as 'De Administrando Imperio', in relation to events of the second half of the 9th century.

....and in the reign of Michael, the son of Theophilus, the protospatharius Theoctistus, surnamed Bryennius, was sent as military governor to the Province of Peloponnesus with a great power and force, viz., of Thracians and Macedonians and the rest of the western provinces, to war upon and subdue them. He subdued and mastered all the Slavs and other insubordinates of the province of Peloponnesus, and only the Ezeritai and the Milingoi were left, towards Lacedaemonia and Helos…….

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...t+Roman+Empire
986:
Quote:
Leo the Deacon was a historian during the reign of the Macedonian Dynasty of East Rome. In the year 986 AD he took part in the war against the army of Emperor Samuel, on behalf of Emperor Basil II - who came from the Macedonia Theme. He was present at the siege of Serdica (later known as Sredets and today known as Sofia), in which the forces of Basil II suffered a loss. Barely escaping with his own life, Leo then travelled to Constantinople where he commenced writing a history of the empire from 992 AD onwards. The below excerpt is in relation to the battle against Samuel and his forces, most of which were from Macedonia proper.

.....since they robbed the region of the Macedonians mercilessly, destroying all adults........

http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/Co...Documents.html
1000's:
Quote:
Michael Psellus was a figure from East Rome that served as a monk, writer and other politician. He wrote during the second half of the 11th century. Below is an example of his reflections on contemporary events, concerning the reign of Constantine IX as emperor in East Rome.

The emperor had a second cousin on the maternal side, a man called Leo, a member of the Tornician family. He lived in Adrianopolis and reeked of Macedonian arrogance........It happened that at that particular time there was a Macedonian colony living in the neighbourhood of the city. Prominent among them were people who had originally pitted in Adrianopolis...........Most of the Macedonians, being a folk who delight in arrogance and insolent bearing more accustomed to the buffoonery of townsmen than the simplicity of the camp, most of them, I say, dismounted from their horses and started choral dances, where everyone could see them. They improvised comic turns at the emperor's expense, stamping on the ground with their feet in time to their music and dancing in triumph. Some of these performances Constantine saw, others he only heard.........

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis...no00.html#BOOK SIX
1100's:
Quote:
The following is from Timarion, a satirical work describing Salonika during a time when it was a city of a high degree of cultural and economic significance.

The Demetria is a festival, like the Panathenaea at Athens and the Panionia among the Milesians, and it is at the same time the most important fair held in Macedonia. Not only do the natives of the country flock together to it in great numbers, but multitudes also come from all lands and of every race - Greeks, wherever they are found, the various tribes of Mysians [i.e. people of Moesia] who dwell on our borders as far as the Ister and Scythia, Campanians and other Italians, Iberians, Lusitanians, and Transalpine Celts.........And if you are anxious to know what it contained, my inquisitive friend, as I saw it afterwards when I came down from the hills — well, there was every kind of material v/oven or spun by men or v,omen, all those that come from Boeotia and the Peloponnese, and all that are brought in trading ships from Italy to Greece. Besides this, Phoenicia furnishes numerous articles, and Egypt, and Spain, and the pillars of Hercules, where the finest coverlets are manufactured. These things the merchants bring direct from their respective countries to old Macedonia and Thessalonica............

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/pgc.a...hess-fair.html
1100's:
Quote:
Orderic Vitalis was an English chronicler who wrote one of the great contemporary chronicles of 11th and 12th century Normandy and England. The below events relate to the year 1084 AD.

Meanwhile, the citizens of Durazzo, taking into account that the Normans had penetrated far into Bulgaria, and had detached by force of arms several provinces from the Byzantine empire, as well as that they were entirely cut off from receiving succours from the Thracians, Macedonians, and all their neighbours, began to lose their confidence............

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...ead.php?t=1467
1100's:
Quote:
Anna Komnena was the daughter of Alexius I, emperor of East Rome. She wrote a history of her father's reign.

The other, the left wing, was led by Catacalon Tarchaniotes, and was composed of fully-armed Macedonians and Thracians, numbering in all about 3,000. Bryennius himself held the centre of the phalanx, consisting of Macedonians and Thracians, and the picked men of the whole nobility..........This Haemus is a very long mountain range running along a line parallel to Mount Rhodope. The range begins at the Euxine sea, leaves the cataracts a little on one side and continues right into Illyria; there it is cut through by the Adriatic Sea, I fancy, and emerges again in the opposite continent and finishes right away in the Hercynian forests. On either side of its slopes dwell many very wealthy tribes, the Dacians and the Thracians on the northern side, and on the southern, more Thracians and the Macedonians.............

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis...Alexiad00.html
1200's:
Quote:
Gesta Hungarorum (Latin for The Deeds of the Hungarians), is a record of early Hungarian history written by an unknown author, who is often cited simply as Anonymous. He describes himself as a "faithful servant of King Bela", although there are more than one King Bela who could be meant, most probable is King Bela III (1172-1196). Gesta Hungarorum is preserved in a manuscript from circa 1200.

Some days later, Zuard and Cadusa with their whole army, emblazoned standards aloft, crossed the water of the Danube and captured Barancs [Borons] castle, after which they went to the castle of Scereducy. Hearing this, the countrymen of the Bulgarians and Macedonians feared greatly before them. Then all the inhabitants of that land sent their envoys with many gifts, to surrender the land to them and hand over their sons as hostages.

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...read.php?t=454
1300's:
Quote:
The Nine Worthies (also known as Nine Valiants) are a group of heroic figures from various periods who have had a considerable historical impact through their actions. Their characters were established as symbols of chivalry, leadership and bravery by Jacques de Longuyon in his Voeux du Paon in the early 14th century, and they come from different cultural and religious backgrounds. They gained prominence as a theme in the literature and art of Europe during the Middle Ages, and became increasingly popular in the centuries that followed. Of great significance is the fact that Alexander was one of these characters, and is almost always depicted in a picture with a lion that has a striking resemblance to the Macedonian coat of arms.




http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...orthies&page=3
1470:
Quote:
A captain of the Venetian infantry named Joe Mario Delji Angiolelo, made some notes in his diary that recorded events as he was passing through Macedonia, below is an excerpt:

On the 13th, the Sultan arrived near a town called Ser, which also was called in antiquity……..on the 14th, he travelled in the vicinity of the Holy Mountain……..This mountain is very high and there are many monasteries of the Christian monks, some of whom are Greeks, others Macedonians, Vlachs and even Italians, as well as other nations, who live lives of saints.

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...p?t=794&page=2
1483:
Quote:
After his second pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Felix Fabri, a master of sacred theology from Zurich, wrote an account of his travels, below is excerpt:

Lowest of all are the galley-slaves of the first and second class, whom in Latin we call regimes, or rowers, who sit on the cross-benches to work at the oars. There are a great many of them, and they all are big men; but their labours are only fit for asses, and they are urged to perform them by shouts, blows, and curses…..I shudder to think of the torture and punishments of those men…..As a rule they are Macedonians, and men from Albania, Achaia, Illyria and Sclavonia; and sometimes there are among them Turks and Saracens, who, however, conceal their religion…….

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...ead.php?t=4423
1500's:
Quote:
Korenich Rolls (Macedonia)


http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...orthies&page=3
1500's:
Quote:
These texts were produced by the Institut Detudes Slave, De L'universite De Paris in 1958, and are a study based on words and phrases from Macedonia. It is one of the earliest manuscripts written in a purely Macedonian vernacular tongue, and its content was collected from the village of Bogatsko, which is found in the region of Kostur in the south-west of Macedonia. The texts demonstrate that spoken Macedonian from the 16th century has a far greater affinity to spoken Macedonian dialects of today than it does to Church Slavonic. For well over half of a millenium, the Macedonian language has basically remained the same.



http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...ead.php?t=3066
1500's:
Quote:
Giorgio Giulio Clovio (1498-1578) was an illuminator, miniaturist, and painter. He was called Macedo or Il Macedone because of his Macedonian origin. He was employed by Louis II of Hungary, Cardinal Farnese at Rome, and other princely patrons. Among the best known of the many works ascribed to him are the illuminations for the Book of the Hours of the Blessed Virgin, his masterpiece; the manuscript biography of Frederick, duke of Urbino; Cardinal Grimani's Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans; The Victories of Emperor Charles V; and the Farnese Breviary. Contents: Autographs of Artists; Ditto; Farnese Palace, Rome; The Sakcinski Portrait; The Vasari Portrait; Medal and Portrait of Cardinal Farnese; The Curzon Portrait; Two Pages from the Stanze d'Eurialo d'Ascoli, Imperial Library, Vienna; Two Pages from the Soane Clovio, London; Miniature from the Victories of Charles V, British Museum; Cartel from same MS; Two pages from the Stuart de Rothesay Offices, British Museum; Death of St. Bartholomew, from a Drawing attributed to Clovio, British Museum; and Adoration of Magi, from an Engraving after Clovio, British Museum.



http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...read.php?t=794
1532:
Quote:
Vinko Pribojevic wrote 'De Origine Successibusque Slavorum' (On the Origin and Glory of the Slavs), in which he makes reference to Alexander and the ancient Macedonians as the same people who populate Macedonia during his lifetime, and points to their link with the Slavic-speaking people of Europe.

He asks how can one put the Thracians, Mysians, and Illyrians among the Greeks and Epirotes, from whom they differ in language and customs. He further points out that Illyrians, Thracians and (ancient) Macedonians then as now are of the same family (natio) and language.………….Pribojevic, in depicting the ancient Macedonians as Slavs, implied Alexander was one. And that belief was to be explicitly stated by various Renaissance writers: Hanibal Lucic, Dinko Ranjin, Dominiko Zlataric, and Ivan Gundulic.

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...ead.php?t=1156
1584:
Quote:
The year of the death of Ivan the Terrible, Czar of Russia. During his lifetime he requested for a world history to be written for himself and his children, in which it states that Alexander the Great was Macedonian, tied to the present Macedonians. The book contains 10,000 pages and covers an overall history up until the time of writing.


http://macedoniaonline.eu/content/view/4374/45/
1600's:
Quote:
Ohmucevic Rolls (Macedonia)


http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...orthies&page=3
1601:
Quote:
Mauro Orbini, a Croatian writer like Pribojevic, was influenced by the latter's writing as several others were during the same period. He stated that Alexander's Macedonians spoke the same Slavonic language that the Macedonian population spoke in his day.

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/wp-co...vo_Slovena.pdf
1630:
Quote:
James Howell was one of the clerks for the royal family's most privy council. In his works there are some fanciful stories with regard to antiquity that lack historical validity or evidence, but his record of contemporary circumstances were much more accurate. He elaborates on the vast expanse of European territory in which Slavic languages are spoken, including Macedonia - and refers to their inhabitants as Macedonians.

Those countries that border upon Germany, as Bohemia, Silisia, Poland, and those vast countries north-eastwards, as Russia and Muscovia, speak the Sclavonic language: And it is incredible what I have heard some travellers report on the vast extent of that language; for beside Sclavonia itself, which properly is Dalmatia and Liburnia, it is the vulgar speech of the Macedonians, Epirots, Bosnians, Servians, Bulgarians, Moldavians, Rascians, and Podolians; nay, it spreads itself over all the eastern parts of Europe (Hungary and Wallachia excepted) as far as Constantinople, and is frequently spoken in the Seraglio among the Janissaries………..

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...read.php?t=387
1630:
Quote:
Another source from James Howell. This one relates to a title bestowed upon Osman II as the Conqueror of the Macedonians, the seed of Alexander the Great. This was probably due to precedent and/or campaigns in Macedonia. Of significance is the fact that the Macedonians of Osman's era are considered to be the descendants of Alexander's Macedonians.

Monarch of the Turks, King above all Kings………Conqueror of the Macedonians, the seed of Great Alexander……..

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...read.php?t=408
1741:
Quote:
From the Stemmatographia by Hristofor Zhefarovich, Vienna. Zhefarovich descended from Dojran in Macedonia.



http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...ead.php?t=2146
1754:
Quote:
A number of members in the regiments of New Serbia, that is, Slavonic Serbia in Russia, declared themselves as Macedonians. In Sevic’s regiment 74 persons declared that they came from the “Macedonian nation”. According to the Russian author Kabuzanov, in 1754 in New Serbia there were 2,225 persons, out of which 124 Macedonians.

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...read.php?t=567
Also related is the following threads:

http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...3277#post13277
http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...ead.php?t=3586
http://www.macedoniantruth.org/forum...ead.php?t=1530
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