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Old Yesterday, 11:12 AM   #471
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Empires and Barbarians: The Fall of Rome and the Birth of Europe, by Peter Heather

Pg. 106: By c. 200 AD, for instance, the Roman army was able to recruit into its ranks Goths - one of the old Wielbark groups - from the fringes of Dacia. A hundred years before, Gothic territories had been too remote from the frontier for this to happen.

Pg. 135: Gothic troops were serving with Roman armies against Persia even before the attack on Histria in 238.

Pages 127-8: In 238, after their assault on Histria, the Romans granted the attacking Goths an annual subsidy on condition that they withdrew from the city and returned prisoners. This provided a howl of protest from the local Carpi, who claimed to be ‘more powerful’ than the Goths. The Carpi, as we have seen, were a group of so-called free Dacians established in the Moldavian hinterland of the Carpathians, semi-subdued clients who had not been brought under formal imperial rule. The expansion into the frontier zone of Goths and other Germanic-speakers brought the migrants into competition with these Dacian troops. And, over time, Gothic power in the region grew directly at the Carpi’s expense. In the end, the Carpi lost out completely. Their political independence was totally dismantled, with large numbers -hundreds of thousands of them, according to the Roman sources- being resettled inside the Empire either side of the year 300. Again, precise figures can be doubted, but not the overall picture. The Carpi disappear as an independent political force from the early fourth century, and we have explicit evidence that they were resettled south of the Danube. Likewise, there is not the slightest doubt that the Germanic-speaking Goths replaced native Dacian-speakers as the dominant force around the Carpathian system.

P. 132: As to the total number of migrants involved, it is impossible to say. […] But it is precisely when faced with this kind of evidential impasse that the qualitative definition of mass migration used in comparative studies becomes helpful. The ‘shock to the political systems’ at the receiving end of each of the migration flows could hardly be clearer. Especially in the third century, the Roman Empire abandoned Transylvanian Dacia, many of the Carpi were pushed out of long-established homes into the Empire […] The domination of this region by Germanic-speakers, so evident from c. 300 AD, was the result of an armed migration flow certainly to be numbered in the thousands, and very probably tens of thousands. Using a qualitative rather than a numerical type of definition now commonly adopted in migration studies, this was straightforwardly a ‘mass’ migration.
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Old Yesterday, 02:58 PM   #472
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Titus Livius (Livy) - URL:
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/...3Achapter%3D57

The demise of Philip happened very seasonably for the purpose of gaining time and collecting strength for the support of a war: for, in a few days after, the nation of the Bastarnians, in consequence of long solicitation, set out from their own abodes, with a large force of infantry and cavalry, and crossed the Danube. [3] Antigonus and Cotto (the latter was a Bastarnian of distinction, and Antigonus had been sent, much against his will, with this same Cotto, as ambassador, to persuade his countrymen to take arms) went forward, to carry intelligence of this to the king; but at a small distance from Amphipolis a rumour, and then authentic information, acquainted them with the king’s death; which event disconcerted the whole arrangement of their plan. [4] It had been arranged in this manner; — Philip was to procure for the Bastarnians a safe passage through Thrace, and supplies of provisions. In order to be able to effect this, he had courted the chieftains in that country by presents, having pledged his faith that the Bastarnians should march through it in a peaceable body. [5] It was proposed to exterminate the nation of the Dardanians, and to establish settlements for the Bastarnians in their country: [6] [p. 1913] from which measure a double advantage would accrue, if both the Dardanians, a nation ever hostile to Macedonia, and anxiously looking to the unfortunate periods of its kings, would be removed out of the way; and the Bastarnians, having left their wives and children in Dardania, might be sent to ravage Italy. [7] That the road to the Adriatic Sea and Italy was through the country of the Scordiscians, and that the army could not be led by any other way; that the Scordiscians would readily grant a passage to the Bastarnians, for they would have no dislike to people resembling themselves in language and manners, and would probably join them in an expedition, when they saw that they were on their way to the plunder of a most opulent nation. [8] The remaining plans were accommodated to every kind of event that might take place; for if the Bastarnians would be cut off by the Romans, still the removal of the Dardanians, and the booty to be gained from the remains of the former, and the full possession of Dardania, would prove a consolation; [9] or if they should be successful, then, while the Romans would be employed in the Bastarnian war, he might recover what he had lost in Greece. Such had been the designs of Philip.
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